Vietnam, which is becoming a huge competition for many economies, has already signed a trade pact with the EU. The agreement between the United States and the United States and China contains the two sections on agricultural biotechnology, which contain commitments to expedite the approval process for GMOs. The USMCA definition extends to new methods of gene processing.54 It describes procedures for transparency, timely verification of products requiring regulatory approval and cooperation between them. The U.S.-China agreement also includes the obligation to expedite approval procedures for agricultural biotechnology products, to accept applications continuously and throughout the year, and to limit these procedures to a maximum of 24 months. After approval, the approval period is at least 5 years.55 This type of measure would have a huge impact in India, where caution remains the priority for environmental and health reasons. This scenario is expected to evolve soon with the signing of the first phase of the U.S.-India trade agreement. India has proposed partially opening up and allowing the importation of U.S. chicken legs at a 25% tariff. However, U.S. negotiators want tariffs reduced to 10%.26 India`s poultry industries strongly oppose the proposed free trade agreement with the United States because they fear that imports of cheap poultry could lead to the closure of hundreds of thousands of indigenous chicken farms and processing units and that about four million people will be unemployed. „The price of chicken meat in the U.S. is ridiculously low,“ says K.G. Anand, managing director of Venkateshwara Hatcheries, India`s largest producer of raw and processed chicken meat.
„The government cannot kill millions of farmers to meet a country`s needs.“ 27 For fully multilateral agreements (not listed below), see: List of multilateral free trade agreements. 19 Trade International Dairy Food Association, www.idfa.org/trade After rice and wheat, maize is the third largest cereal crop in India and accounts for about 10% of total cereal production. Maize is not only used as a food for humans, but also as a raw material for thousands of industrial products.40 Due to increased demand for poultry feed and starch, India`s maize imports reached one million tonnes in 2019. As with soybeans, U.S. corn is dumped by 12% on international markets.42 If India allows U.S. corn to be imported at this rate under the proposed free trade agreement, the domestic price of Indian maize will fall sharply, resulting in a sharp decline in its surface and production. As a result, Indian corn producers may face a similar situation to that of Mexican producers after nafta is signed. More than two million Mexicans lost their livelihoods when the trade deal flooded Mexico with subsidized corn from the United States.43 The announcement of the proposed agreement came as a shock to millions of small Indian food producers and informal traders because they will be directly affected.
Although there is no discussion or consultation on the proposal, no text has been made available to the public or debated in the Indian parliament, it is clear that India`s agricultural sector is targeted. The two countries are important trading partners for each other. In terms of merchandise trade, India is the 9th largest partner of the United States, while the United States is India`s second largest partner.