Shastri died mysteriously in Tashkent after signing the agreement. It was reported that he died of a heart attack, but there were conspiracy theories about his death that speculated that he had been murdered. The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India and Pakistan to resolve the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 (August 5, 1965 – September 23, 1965). It was signed in Tashkent, the capital of Uzbekistan, which in turn was part of one of the republics composed of the USSR. The main objective was to re-establish economic and diplomatic relations in the countries concerned, to stay away from the internal and external affairs of the other and to work for the advancement of bilateral relations. The agreement brought only a ceasefire and nothing more. But the war proved important in many ways. First, it was the first successful operation that not only thwarted Pak`s attempt to conquer Kashmir, but also occupied strategic territories that exert considerable pressure on Pakistan. Pakistan has failed in its risk of changing the situation at J&K. Second, India`s war improved international prestige, especially after the Sino-Indian War of 1962. The Times indicated in its editorial that India would be Asia`s power. Third, it significantly improved relations with the Soviet Union and bore fruit during the 1971 war.

Fourth India has begun to focus on the nuclear program to deal with the Chinese threat. Fifth, India has accelerated its defence procurement programme to strengthen its capabilities. Sixth, India has eliminated its weaknesses in gathering information and assessing skills that were noticed during the war. India has established its own external intelligence unit and has placed the Joint Intelligence Committee in the Cabinet Secretariat to make an overall assessment taking into account all dimensions. These changes subsequently paid off. The First Indo-Pakistani War, also known as the First Kashmir War (22 October 1947 – 5 January 1949), took place shortly after the independence of India and Pakistan. A ceasefire agreement led to the creation of the Line of Control (LOC) as the de facto border between India and Pakistan in Kashmir. The relationship between the international politics of the Cold War and the Indo-Pak War of 1965 is important in two respects. First, the international politics of the Cold War influenced the nature of the conflict and the agreement that followed. In fact, the attitude of foreign powers has influenced the conflict and the changing scenes of the conflict on their approach to the parties involved. It would not be wrong to say that India is at war on two fronts: one on the battlefield and the other on the diplomatic front, and the two were closely linked. Second, the 1965 war involved the United States and the Soviet Union in a way that determined the path for further engagement of the superpower in the region.

The declaration concluded only hostilities between India and Pakistan at the time, but it still left open the Kashmir issue between the two sides, as neither side has been able to reach an agreement to date. This was the time when the Soviet Union wanted Pakistan not to join the Chinese camp and therefore be ready to continue playing with Pakistan despite its close relations with the United States. For example, A Bhutto, Pakistan`s foreign minister, paid a visit to the Soviet Union, followed by Ayub`s visit in April 1965. Several commercial and economic cooperations were signed and a cultural agreement was signed in June 1965. Ayub found the strategic environment in Pakistan`s favor and proposed finding a military solution to the Kashmir issue. Ayub was also encouraged by the fact that China supported Pakistan in the invasion of the Rann de Kutch and that the Britain-sponsored Rann of Kutch agreement gave Pakistan hope that international pressure would be exerted on India. The objects contained in the Tashkent Agreement were very valuable, and if implemented in letters and spirit, they could insuate a new era of peace and friendship. . . .